A pool is an artificial basin, waterproof, filled with water and the dimensions allow a human being to plunge at least partially. There are different types of pool whose characteristics vary according to use: private swimming pool, public swimming pool, leisure pool, therapeutic pool, sports training pool, diving pool (also known as "diving pit").

Contents [hide]
1 Etymology
2 History and Overview
3 leisure pools
3.1 Public swimming pools
3.2 Private pools
3.2.1 Regulatory, Quality Certification
3.2.2 Technique Traditional construction molded construction Liner Concrete
3.3 Types of special pools
3.3.1 Sea Pools
3.3.2 Biological swimming
3.3.3 dive tank
3.3.4 pools above ground
4 Medical use
4.1 Rehabilitation
4.2 Thermal pool
5 Water Quality
5.1 Prevention for Water Quality
5.2 Filtration and maintenance
5.3 Chemical Water Quality
5.3.1 Products used
5.4 Wintering
5.5 Polluted water
6 Heating basin
7 References
8 See also
8.1 Bibliography
8.2 Related articles
Etymology [edit | modify the code]
Latin piscina ( "pool"), adopts the term pool, since 1865, the sense of paddling human activities.

History and Overview [edit | modify the code]
See detailed article History of the pool.

leisure pools [change | modify the code]
Public swimming pools [change | modify the code]

Pool, Galapagos Cottages, Island Santa Cruz (Galapagos).

Wave pool, outdoor.

exterior façade and sham customizing the public pool of Fontenay-aux-Roses
Public pools are composed of one or more pools and access is usually paid.

Public pools, covered, in France, have, in general, a pool of 25 meters long and a width of between 10 m and 20 m.
An Olympic pool is a pool of 50 meters long by 25 meters wide, which can be used for international competitions, including the Olympics; its volume is about 3000 m3.
In France, public pools are supervised by lifeguards lifeguards who ensure the safety of pools and are responsible for the water rescue.

Private pools [change | modify the code]

Private pool in a villa near Mexico City.
Private pools rarely exceed 12 meters x 6 meters. Most often they are buried (source?), But can be above ground (often more réduites1 4m x 6m or 6m x 9m size). They are often flat bottom with a depth varying between 1.20 and 1.60 meters, but exist with depths of the order of 2.50 meters, allowing for safe diving. Acquisition costs have generally declined since the early 1990s with the widespread use of swimming pools in kit, but in general, the property of a pool is a status symbol (because of the cost of installing herself , annexes such anti-child net or roof, and water treatment). kit pools are composed of modular panels of various materials covered by a liner. The latter is a proof cover pressed against the bottom and walls by the weight of water. Maintenance is significantly facilitated by the arrival of a new generation of products.

With 24% of the fleet in France (in 2012), the Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur region of France is the first for privées1 pools.

Regulation, quality certification [change | modify the code]
In France, the law imposes since January 2006 the choice of a safety device that can be: an alarm, a security fence, an automatic shutter, a type of immune veranda pool, or a reinforcing bar cover. This is to avoid drowning, accidental, children under 6 years, following drops in the basin.

Technical [edit | modify the code]
Different technologies are used for the construction of private pools. It is possible to classify them into three categories according to the technique used sealing.

Traditional construction [change | modify the code]
Traditional masonry construction is made with hollow blocks. These concrete blocks are mounted as would a traditional wall including stiffening posts and beams scrapped. The whole rests on foundations of 30 cm thick in the most usual cases. In case of mixed terrain (e.g. natural ground at one end and recent earth embankment of the other), the foundation should be adapted to the risk of heterogeneous sagging.

This type of construction is particularly suitable for coatings independent of the structure as are the swimming pool liners. Indeed, once topped out, the pond will be covered with a waterproof membrane type liner or armored PVC.

For building tiles or painting, for example, the pool will be made of reinforced concrete. That is to say that the pool will consist only of one entire block. For this, we will sink a raft (pool slab) to be scrapped firmly. We will bring out all the way around the pool (where the walls will be mounted) irons from 8 mm to be so bound to the walls. In this way, the walls and the slab will be "united" in one block. The walls will be mounted directly in reinforced concrete (with the aid of formwork) is mounted shuttering blocks (lost formwork systems, formwork blocks generally being concrete or polystyrene). The seal will be achieved by a plaster (mortar fat) to be waterproofed. This mortar will be passed in two separate layers on the walls. On the raft, a waterproof cap is done about 5 cm. Then it will make the "corners" (that is to say, the connection between the walls and slab). It is this waterproof mortar that will seal the pool. Then it remains to finish the pool side or in the tiling is putting a special paint.

Contrary to widespread belief, whether tiled pools are less performed today is mainly due to implementation complexity (reinforced concrete structure, plaster, tiling) rather than holding them in the weather. Indeed, a tiled swimming pool performed correctly has a lifetime while a virtually unlimited pool liner may need to be changed after 10 or 15 years (or less). The development of pools with liner or shell or PVC is mainly due to the arrival of builders and manufacturers offering large-scale models manufactured and Industrial2 way.

molded construction [change | modify the code]
The pool is comprised of a shell made of composite materials most often a polyester resin compound. Asked in a hole on a bed of gravel about 10 cm and backfilled with gravel all around. Often finished with a concrete belt to lay the curbs. A polyester pool is commonly known pool shell. The pool shell is made in one piece, entirely molded in the factory. The implementation of a shell pool and installation are quick because the majority of assemblies is done at the factory.

Liner [change | modify the code]
The liner term, of American origin, means a flexible casing separate support, waterproof, removable thanks to its positioning in a hooking profile in coping. The liner is manufactured industrially to dimensions of the pool, from a special PVC membrane pool whose strips are welded at high frequency. Laying a liner requires that the sealed parts in the basin (skimmer3, bottom drain, nozzles or mouths of repressions, vacuum point, projector, etc.) are compatible and therefore provided with seals and special sealing flanges.
The quality of PVC (gross) and its components (plasticizers, biocides, stabilizers, etc.) are features essential to the proper aging of the waterproof coating.
Several plain or printed colors are available and it is available in different thicknesses: 50/100 mm, 60/100 mm, 75/100 mm and 85/100 mm4.
The September 2005 AFNOR standard states that the usual life of a liner 'is the order of 5 to 15 years, subject to compliance with the recommendations of installation and maintenance [...] under normal conditions use ".

Beside the classic liner (0.75 mm in general), public pools usually use the more resistant reinforced PVC.

Concrete [change | modify the code]
It is projected using the technique of "gunning" or shuttered with a wall "FiberGlass" technique concrete pools offers the possibility of freedom of form. The floor is then covered with a coating generating aesthetics and reinforcing the impermeability of the basin.

Specific types of pools [change | modify the code]
Sea pools [change | modify the code]

Sea swimming pool Porto Moniz (Madeira).
In the early twentieth century, particularly in Australia, seafood pools were built, often on promontories, using the natural pools formed between the rocks, possibly enclosed by masonry walls, the water being renewed through reservoirs fed by the tide or simply by water at high tide. Sea pools now exist in other places, particularly those without beaches, such as Madeira.

Biological swimming [change | modify the code]
Main article: Biological Swimming.
The biological swimming pool is a pond with plants providing natural filtration of water and free of chemicals, including the free form is lined with vegetation. The ecological trend gives pride of a media point of view to such achievements. In fact only a few dozen tanks were built on pools 1,500,000 individuals distributed in Hexagone.Techniquement talking large scale experiments like Combloux, remain disappointing: closures, pollution, prophylactic and technical constraints have marked tests this type of swimming pools.

diving pool [change | modify the code]
Main article: Diving tank.
A diving pool is a plunge pool artificial pool to include train to snorkeling or generally in depth.

Aboveground pools [change | modify the code]
The term aboveground pool means anything that is not within the soil. Standing at the soil surface, this type of pool is assembled in kit easily (for tubular pool) and requires neither earth nor digging and mounts in a short time. As ground pools, above ground pools are a product of leisure and relaxation. The above ground pools have democratized and developed in the 80s.

There are several types of off-ground pools: Frame Pool and lawn or inflatable pools. The former are often in kit form and the liner is supported by the tubes. The second are the pools with a inflatable tube now the pool water. Finally, some above ground pools are made of wood for exterior cladding. This noble material promotes the integration of the swimming pool in the environment but is longer and more expensive to install.

Found tubular pools of rectangular, round or oval. The self-carrying pools are round or oval shapes (this feature buttresses to support the oval edges of the pool).

According to The Figaro5, tubular and inflatable pools are in great demand and the year 2010 saw a 25% growth even causing shortages. Symbol of welfare at home and favored by a warm and sunny weather, the above ground pools facing the floor and are much less expensive than in-ground which in France requires authorization work. The French appreciate these pools that are quick and easy to install, yet simple to maintain.

The number of off-floor pool has increased from 134,000 in 2000 to 559,000 in 2009 [ref. necessary].

France has become the second largest market of above ground pools behind the United States.

Medical use [change | modify the code]
Rehabilitation [change | modify the code]
Gymnastics practiced in pool involves the lesser gravity of the body in water (thanks to the buoyancy, it is considered that a body is about five times lighter [ref. Required]). The basins are designed so as to provide perform exercises (small "river" walk for example, where it is possible to press the hands of both sides). They are usually a depth of 1.50 meters to have foot and walk to the movements of the body to loosen the joints under the guidance of a physiotherapist. Attendance at the pool is limited small number of participants for strict non pathogen transmission. Patients are controlled not to be carriers of communicable diseases. The pool is equipped with devices enabling patients to access water even in strong motor disability. Pulsating massage jets in the water are installed device on the board, the massager can use a spear to individual water. The use of a movable floor is very effective and helps people with reduced mobility down into the water safely.

Thermal pool [change | modify the code]
Spa pool (see hot spring) is a heated pool that collects heat from a heat source underground. She is known for the therapeutic effects as for rehabilitation care, disability ...

Water quality [change | modify the code]
The quality of the pool water is fundamental to the comfort of swimming as well regarding the safety that the pleasure of bathing. And especially for personal supervisors (sports educators, school teachers, lifeguards ...) who are exposed regularly or permanently, either directly or by fumes (vapors) some of which help to give a characteristic odor (chloramine) in the atmosphere of a pool enclosure. The quality of the pool water is based on various elements.

Prevention for water quality [change | modify the code]
Simple measures can limit human impacts on the good original quality of the pool water. Good hygiene is thus based: wash together before entering the water, with soap, then rinse well. This eliminates sweat, dead skin, makeup, styling gel ... Do not wear a suit or clean clothes. Do not urinate, spit or patronize this kind of shared space when it is subject to a contagious disease. Agglomerations communicate on this axis of prévention6.

Filtration and maintenance [change | modify the code]

Filtration local public pool.
For the pool looks clean, it is necessary to ensure the quality of filtration and pool maintenance to ensure cleanliness (physical and chemical) water. For that it is necessary :

an efficient filtration system, well sized and maintained regularly;
removing impurities and bottom wall aspiration (manual or automated);
the removal of floating impurities by a skimmer system, surface skimmer or overflow chute.
chemical water quality [change | modify the code]
This includes ensuring correct pH (7.27 to 7.4) 8 and disinfect. generally uses the following products:

chlorine and chlorinated products (the most used and it is approved for public pools in France) 9;
bromine (non-irritating, more efficient high temperature but more expensive);
polyhexamethylene (PHMB) (which is used with an algaecide) was banned in French public swimming pools in 2010;
active oxygen (ecological, but restricted to small basins containing H2O2, KMnO4 or H3K5O18S4).
Authorized by the DASS in public pools in France: chlorine and bromine liquid (liquid version of bromine being hard to find in France, the belief that only the liquid chlorine is allowed).

There are devices for automating the processing of water. The most used systems are:

salt electrolysis (sodium hypochlorite is produced by electrolysis of salt added in water);
the ultraviolet treatment (UV) (which can only be used in addition to a disinfection with a chlorine product);
copper / silver electrolysis;
injecting ozone into the water circuit by an ozonator (which can only be used in addition to a disinfection by a chlorinated product);
bromine or chlorine doser with a clock for filtration.
Products used [change | modify the code]
It is not easy to maintain the quality of the water with the extent of the products on the market. These products often require precise calculations from the basin and the ability to position indicator, eg for pH, mount it to 0.2 units per transaction so do many calculations. In addition, this pH varies bathing frequency, water yield thunderstorms. Most products are perishable (like chlorine) do not have too much in stock. The main products used are:

the flocculant: liquid solution (basin) or solid (filter input), to improve the filtration quality of a sand filter;
"Long-term chlorine" (with or without additional product as flocculant or anti-algae);
"Chlorine shock": to "catch up" (correct, re-clean) water having "turned" (polluted or has ended up polluted) as a result of extreme heat or acid rain;
pH + and pH-: to maintain the pH between 7.2 and 7.4 so that other products are at their optimum efficiency and that the pool water is not irritating.
Wintering [change | modify the code]
When the pool is no longer used in the winter, a number of precautions should be taken:

remove all traces of plants by sucking the bottom and sides;
purify water with the addition of "chlorine shock" and continuous filtration, for 24 hours;
add wintering product;
Protect from frost the pool structure by floating elements capable of absorbing the expansion of ice on the whole basin;
lowering the water level below the skimmers or overflow and if possible, empty all water circulation pipes to prevent damage during freezing episodes;
protect the pump, heating and piping all risk of frost;
put the winter cover to avoid any pollution but also any risk of accident (if it is also covering security office).
polluted water [change | modify the code]
Pollution of water causes various symptoms:

Cloudy water: characterized by the "dust" in water, generally linked to a lack of filtering or cleaning of filters insuffisant10. This may also be due to floating plant or stagnant pond bottom (floating plants "between two waters" should be vacuumed);
Green water: usually related to the presence of algae, which can be corrected by increasing filtration and dose of algaecide. Direct exposure to the pool in the sun quickly increases the amount of algae in the pond, the duration of the filtration should be adjusted accordingly. The use of "bubble sheet" reduces direct sunlight and algae growth but also maintains high night temperature which increases the growth of bacteria and other pollutants.
pool heating [change | modify the code]

The infinity pool at Marina Bay Sands in Singapore.
Pool water can be heated. For this, several solutions are possible:

heating boiler in public pools their boiler directly or indirectly by district heating;
heating exchanger in public pools that use heat pumps. Some of them are associated with rinks;
passive heating by the sun when the pool is open seasonally for public pools or private pools.
This heating in the latter case the installation can be made more effective by the use of an insulating sheet (generally plastic bubble) floating directly to the water surface and thus isolating the surface. Heat loss by convection (wind) or radiation (starry night or day without sunshine) are reduced;
solar heating via a non-glazed solar collector (network of black plastic tubes) in which circulates water from the filtration circuit (the simplest and least efficient solution), or via a vacuum tube solar system that allows the use the pool for a longer period.
special case of a Nordic pool (covered or coverable by a pool or rolling retractable roof) only water is heated, so no ambient air, which is actually outside. This is an ecological and economic interests of this type of pool.